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|A First Look
Recording (or "Sequencing")
|Overview: How the 01 Makes
Wordy Explanation with Details
Combinations can sound richer and be more complex than a Program because they are combinations of Programs. Up to eight Programs go into one Combination, and those Programs can be spread across the keyboard in various ways. (Click here to see a list of 01 Combinations.)
Programs are built up from one or two basic Sounds, which are explained later. (Click here to see a list of 01 Programs.)
Which is PCM encoded
This sample is encoded so it can be stored in memory for use by the internal computer. The type of encoding used is called Pulse Code Modulation, or "PCM".
PCM Samples are locked into memory
These PCM encoded samples are kept in ROM, a type of memory that never forgets and cannot be changed. There is ROM inside the 01 ("factory installed"). You can get external PCM Cards (with ROM inside) to plug in the back of your 01 (the "PCM DATA" slot).
PCM Samples cannot be input or output in any way. They can't be saved to or read from floppy. They can't be input or output over MIDI. They can only be read by a microprocessor connected to the ROM.
Very technical 01 users can make their own PCM Cards and/or copy existing PCM Cards. But the copy is from ROM to another memory integrated circuit.
PCM Samples are divided into Multi-Sounds and Drum Sounds
Multi-Sounds and Drum Sounds are used to create a Program ("Prog").
Progs are used to create Combis.
Korg recorded an acoustic guitar, as described above, and stored (or "burned") the sample into ROM (an integrated circuit inside your 01). Korg also sampled various drums, horns, strings plus modified waveforms of other stuff, and "burned" it all into ROM. Korg has divided these samples into two groups. One is called "Multi-Sounds", the other "Drum Sounds", collectively called "Sounds".
Notice in precise 01 terminology, a "Sound" is what everyone else calls a "sample".
Sounds (samples) are used to create what Korg calls a "Program" or "Prog". The rest of the world calls this a "patch". New 01 users tend to use "sounds" to mean "Program".
When you create a Program (EDIT PROG), you select a Sound (sample), only now it is called an "Oscillator". (You rarely see this term so don't worry about it.) In EDIT PROG, you modify the Sound (sample) in various ways to make it sound (to your ears) the way you want. All these modifications are stored as a "Program", with a specific name and number. For example, Program "A04:RosewoodGt" is made up of two Sounds: "048:A.Bass 2" and "033:G.Guitar", PLUS various envelope and effects settings.
You can create and save and exchange Programs. Progs are saved to disk, and Prog settings are sent over MIDI using SysEx messages. You CANNOT change Sounds (samples) and you can't get them out of the 01 (to save on disk or put into a computer program). These are stored in ROM, which can't be erased or modified. (Technically there might be a way to do this, but it would take some engineering modifications.)
If you want new Sounds (samples), you have to get a PCM card that plugs in the "PCM DATA" slot in the back or your 01. PCM cards makes additional Sounds (samples) available for creating Programs. Notice the PCM card alone doesn't give you any Programs, only raw samples. You either create your own new Progs, get a floppy with new Progs on it, or get a different card that plugs in the "PROG/SEQ DATA" slot in the back of your 01. (If you have a floppy, there is no reason to use the "PROG/SEQ DATA" card unless the Prog and/or sequences are not available on floppy.)
Finally, to wrap things up, Combinations (or Combis) are made up of Programs. Combis are also stored on floppy and can be exchanged over MIDI using SysEx messages.
In Korg-Speak: Multi-Sounds and Drum Sounds are used to create Programs.
Programs are used to create Combinations.
In Real World Speak: Samples are used to create patches.
There are two groups of samples: Multi-Sounds
and Drum Sounds. They are stored separately and handled differently, but
these "Sounds" are the basis for all sound your 01 makes. (A
list of Multi-Sounds is on pages 138-139 and lists of Drum Sounds are on
pages 18-23 and 43-46 of the 01/W Percussion Manual.)
(A list of Programs is on page 136, and a table showing the Sounds in each Program is on pages 140-143 of the 01/W Percussion Manual.)
In Korg terminology, when you specify a Multi-Sound/Drum Kit, you are
assigning an "oscillator". Historically, the basic sound for analog synthesizers
was an oscillator. The 01's sampled waveform has replaced the electronically
generated waveform, but the function is similar. So an 01 "oscillator"
is a generic term that means either a Multi-Sound or a Drum Kit. The manual
also uses "voice" and "oscillator" to mean the same thing.
If, however, you assigned two Oscillators to a Program, you can push down only 16 keys at the same time.
This may not seem a big deal - how often do you play with your entire forearm? Where this really shows up is in Combinations (discussed shortly) and sometimes when Sequencing. Just be aware that if you think you hear notes dropping out, it's possible you've exceeded the 32-Sound limit.
Once you've assigned an Oscillator in your Program, you can modify the
Sound/sound. Using the Edit Program pages, you
can modify the Sound in lots of different ways. That's really what makes
a Program different from a Sound. The raw Multi/Drum-Sound is held (or
not), detuned, distorted, delayed, panned, filtered, and/or tracked. When
you've got all the modifications the way you want them, you give your new
Program a new name, and save it.
The 01 is controlled by a microprocessor. It is rumored to be an 8086 clone, one of the 20-MHz V50 series made by NEC. But the schematics show it is a UPD65016-GF-058-38A which is driven by a 32 MHz clock. There is a 20MHz clock used to drive the DRAM refresh circuit.
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