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|- What Is PCM?
- Technical Details
- The PCM Memory
- The Connector
- PCM Card Pinouts
- Theory of Operation
|- Korg PCM Cards
- Best of M&T
- Piano Keyboard
- Synth Design
Copying a PCM card
Finding used cards
Compatibility with other synths
PCM card problems, fixing
Note: At this level, 01/W terminology needs to be precise. Technically, "Sound" refers to either a Multi-Sound or a Drum Sound. One or more Sounds are used to make a Program, or "Prog" (commonly called a Patch by non-Korg synthesists). Up to eight Programs are used to build a Combination, or "Combi". So, technically, a Sound is a PCM sample.
The 01 comes with permanent Sounds burned into ROMs. These cannot be lost or changed. Additional Sounds were/are available on a card that plugs into the "PCM DATA" slot in the back of the 01. These "PCM Cards" were/are sold by Korg and others.
When you plug a PCM card into your 01, you are adding Multi-Sounds and/or
Drum Sounds to those already installed in your 01. If you click on "Card
Contents" in the descriptions below,
you will see exactly how many Sounds will be added.
|BIG WARNING !!|
|A PCM Card can break or simply die. If/when it does,
none of your Progs, Combis, or Sequences that use Sounds off that Card
will work. You cannot "back-up" a PCM Card - not to the floppy or anything
over MIDI. If you have a gig the night your Card dies, then you, too, are
dead, dead, dead. You have two options:
1. Buy a second, identical Card and have it ready to plug in,
2. It may be possible to build a custom SRAM PCM Card that can hold a copy the PCM Card.
2. The PCM card must always be plugged into the 01 when you want to use any Sounds off that PCM card - the PCM Sounds are NOT read off the Card and magically stored anywhere. This means...
3. You can't use the PCM Card in multiple 01s at the same time, and
4. You can't use two or more PCM Cards OR the Sounds off two or more PCM Cards at the same time.
Korg sold six PCM Card Sets at a cost of $200 (US $) each. Cards could be used "with all 0-series products except 03R/W". As expressed in 1992 sales literature:
"Each two-card set in the XSC series of data cards gives you a PCM card which offers a huge volume of quality PCM data, plus a program/combination card containing 100 programs and 100 combinations, and demo sequences."
You must have the PCM Card (XSC) to get the new Sounds. The Prog/Combi
Card (XPC) is conveneint but not required. You may be able to find the
contents the contents of this card as downloadable files on the internet,
which you can then put on a floppy or send over MIDI. Try http://www.vienxu.com/korg0.
XSC-2S (XSC-802 + XPC-02) Click here to see Card contents.
Multi-Sounds: 23. Drum Sounds: 14.
"This unique set of data cards features a PCM card with 23 multisounds reproducing a wide variety of orchestral instruments, plus 14 drum sounds that include various orchestral percussion and sound effects. This is a solid collection of material for orchestration and sound effect applications."
XSC-3S (XSC-803 + XPC-03) Click here to see Card contents.
Multi-Sounds: 7. Drum Sounds: 0.
"The PCM card of this practical set contains seven keyboard multisounds, each occupying a large portion of the card's memory. The highlight of the set is a soft, classical-sounding piano with a keyboard response that will topple your notion of what a 'synthesized piano' sounds like."
XSC-4S (XSC-804 + XPC-04) Click here to see Card contents.
Multi-Sounds: 16. Drum Sounds: ?.
"The XSC-4S PCM Card contains 16 multisounds such as SynthBass and SlapBass, which are essential for funk and dance music like House and Rap. This is a super set of multisounds and drum sounds for dance music!"
XSC-5S (XSC-805 + XPC-05) Click here to see Card contents.
Multi-Sounds: 82. Drum Sounds: ?.
"This set presents a montage of synthesized sounds that will take you from analog synths through the latest techno-industrial sounds."
XSC-6S (XSC-806 + XPC-06) Click here to see Card contents.
Multi-Sounds: 64(or 66?). Drum Sounds: 43.
"The XSC-6S card contains ethnic sounds not in internal memory such as traditional Japanese instruments. There is a wide range of ethnic instruments; for example, Shakuhachi, Koto, Taiko, Tsutsumi, Sitar and Santur. In particular, the sounds of Sitar and Santur are excellent. The drum kits also contain unique ethnic sounds."
"New PCM cards for 01/W synths, including the acoustic string modeled
piano PCM card, 'The Way'."
The card costs $155+shipping from Turkey. (2000Jun14)
2002 Aug 20: E-mail reports this company may be out of business. I have not confirmed.
Invision may have been another manufacturer. Their Acoustic Instruments
card is reported to contain the following 8 Multi-Sounds: "Bari Horn",
"Rainstick1", "Rainstick2", "Harpelieke", "Solo Flute", "Solo Violin",
"Guitar", and "Concert Harp". These samples were said to be "fabulous"
by the card owner.
You may be able to find used PCM cards for sale over the internet at places like the korg 01 mail list, an auction house like E-bay, or by posting you interest at a site like SynthZone. You might also get lucky by posting a "PCM Card Wanted" notice at you local Korg music store and/or service center. For more details, go to the Used 01 Gear page.
The 03R/W has some 01 Sounds and some Sounds unique to the 03. This means that any Prog/Combi Cards made for the 03 will likely not sound right in an 01. One 01 owner reported that his 01 would not recognize the 03 Prog/Combi cards at all - his money was wasted.
It has been reported that 01 PCM cards will work in the Korg X3 and Wavestation SR. (It wasn't stated whether X3 and/or SR cards will work in the 01.)
Cards made for Wavestation models other than the SR are said not to work in either the SR or the 01.
M1 cards will not work in the 01.
If you insert a card and get the message "no card", the card is probably
not making good electrical contact. This could be because:
1. The card is not inserted properly. Both the PCM and Prog/Combi cards should extend exactly the same distance from the back of the 01.
2. The card fingers are dirty. Clean them with contact cleaner, alcohol, or even a pencil eraser. Just make sure the fingers are completely clean before putting the card in the slot.
3. The card slot is dirty. These slots tend to accumulate dust that
gets pushed onto the contacts. A blast of compressed air (from your lungs
or a can) can fix the problem.
PCM cards cannot be copied to the 01 floppy (not to be confused with the companion Prog/Combi card, which can.) PCM cards cannot be read and sent out over MIDI in any way.
It has been reported that a PCM card can be copied to a PC disk. Once there, it can be copied out to an SRAM card. You must have a PCMCIA slot on your PC to do this. (NOTE: I haven't done any of this, so I can't answer any questions about it.)
Some PCM cards have a feature called CIS/Attribute memory. The Korg card does NOT support Attribute memory. Knowing this
1. Obtain and install on your PC "Freecard services software" which will read PCM cards that do not support Attribute memory. (available from http://www.csluk.demon.co.uk/cs)
2. Set the software to read 2MB, read your card, and save the file to your computer's disk.
3. Buy a 2MB SRAM card that does NOT have CIS/Attribute memory (about $135 from Synchrotech (http://www.synchrotech.com PCM-SR-N02 - Synchrotech 2MB PCMCIA SRAM without Attribute).
4. Write the file from the disk out to the SRAM card.
5. As a bonus, if you have the system described above, you can create your own PCM cards by using the PCM Workshop program (from http://members.aol.com/wrkshppcm).
NOTE: This only works for copying PCM cards. There is no way to copy
the Sounds stored in ROM inside the 01.
This is said to be a PCMCIA Type-I connector, compatible with Release 1.0 (1990 Sep) or 2.0 (1991 Sep). Cards that plug into this connector are said to be a one-time programmable memory (OTP) ROM card. I have not confirmed this.
|01 Name||Card Name||Pin||Pin||Card Name||01 Name|
|"A" (5/16 volts)||nc||15||54||A23||WB2|
|"A" (5/16 volts)||VCC||17||52||nc||"A" (5/16 volts)|
|"A" (5/16 volts)||nc||18||51||VCC||"A" (5/16 volts)|
|A0 - A23||Address lines. 24 bits can address 16,777,216 (16M) addresses.
Each address line is terminated with a 100-ohm pull-up resistor and a 330 pf capacitor to ground.
|WAn||probably "Wave Address"|
|WBn||probably "Wave Bank"|
|D0 - D16||Data lines. 16 bits of data.|
|EWDn||probably "E(something) Wave Data"|
|CSH-||normally means "Chip Select, High", but the usage here is not clear|
|CSL-||normally means "Chip Select, Low", but the usage here is not clear|
|OE-||Output Enable (active low)|
|"A"||A DC voltage labeled "16V" that likely goes to a 5-volt regulator on the PCM card. It is also possible that it is mislabeled, and it is actually 5 volts. An actual measurement would settle this question.|
|P.C ST||Output from Card to CPU. This may indicate that a card is inserted.|
|WP||probably "Write Protect". May have been designed-in early in case writable PCM memory was ever offered. The signal is not connected on the 01/W side.|
|nc||Normally means "not connected", but there are exceptions:
Card pins 15, 18, and 52 are connected to "A" (5-volts?).
Card pins 60 and 61 are connected to 01/W ground.
|VCC||This is labelled as "VCC" on the connector, but is connected to "A" in the 01. There are two VCC pins on the connector, which are decoupled to the four Ground pins with a 10uF, 16-volt electrolytic capacitor (another indication that "A" is really 5-volts).|
|Ground||There are four Ground pins. All are connected together and decoupled to VCC.|
The PCM card slot is designed to address up to eight ROMs. It uses a similar addressing scheme by using the highest Card address bits (A21, A22, A23) to drive a 3-to-8 line decoder. This decoder is enabled when the same signal (WB3) is low. The PCM card ROM Output Enable (OE-) pins are tied to ground, which means the outputs are turned on by Chip Select lines.
All PCM ROMs are accessed by IC12 (MB87726PF, a QFP-160 package, with the note "TG88"). It is driven by a 32 MHz (31.25ns) clock, which would have some relation to the access time of the PCM ROM.
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